Vedic Sanskrit Glossary - T -
Tad-ekātma-rūpa — forms of the Lord
which are nondifferent from His original form, but which have different
bodily features and specific activities.
* tadīya — everything belonging to the Lord.
* tahini — a
semi-liquid sesame butter used in Middle Eastern cuisine. This
cream-gray paste has the consistency of runny peanut butter and is the
basis of various salad dressings and mezze (entrees) throughout Greece, Cyprus, Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria where it is known as tahina.
Takṣaka — A
winged snake who was protected by his friend Indra from the
conflagration of the Khāṇḍava forest and who later, by the curse of
Śṛṅgi, was fated to kill Mahārāja Parīkṣit. Kaśyapa Muni tried to stop
Takṣaka from approaching Parīkṣit, but Takṣaka managed to carry out his
mission by bribing the sage.
* Takṣaka — the king of the snakes. He killed Mahārāja Parīkṣit.
* takuwan — Japanese white daikon radish, pickled in rice bran and salt.
tamāla — Garcinia xanthochymus, cinnamomum tamala,
a tree with blackish blue bark resembling the color of Kṛṣṇa. It is
sacred to Vaiṣṇavas and is featured in many of the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa and
* tamāla — a tree whose color resembles Lord Kṛṣṇa's. It is found mostly in Vṛndāvana, India.
* tamarillo — sometimes
called the tree tomato, this glossy plum-red egg-shaped fruit is a
native to South America and the Peruvian Andes. It is now grown
commercially in New Zealand. Tamarillos have a juicy, slightly acid
flesh, and can be used raw, after peeling, for fruit salads or cooked in
purees and chutneys. It is available at selected produce markets and
* tamarind — the pulp extracted from the brown pods of the tamarind tree, Tamarindus indica.
The fresh pulp has a sour fruity taste and is popular in Indian and
Indonesian cooking. Tamarind is available in different forms
commercially. The crudest consists of blocks of partly dried, unpitted,
broken, sticky, fibrous pods. They should be macerated in water to
extract the sour brown tamarind juice, as should another form, in blocks
of fibrous pulp without seeds. The most convenient is tamarind
concentrate, which can be used straight from the jar. Tamarind makes
excellent sweet-and-sour chutneys or sauces, and can be used in
vegetable dishes and curries. Tamarind in its various forms is available
at Indian and South East Asian grocery stores.
tamas — Ignorance; one of the modes of material nature.
* tamas — the material mode of ignorance.
* Tamasaḥ — the coverings of the universe.
tamboura — (tanpura) A stringed instrument played in classical Indian music.
tāmbūla — Betel nut.
tamo-guṇa — Among the three modes of material nature, the mode of darkness. It causes ignorance, delusion, foolishness, and inertia.
* tamo-guṇa — the mode of ignorance, or darkness of material nature. It is controlled by Lord Śiva.
* tānava — the ecstatic symptom of thinness.
* Tāṇḍava-nṛtya — Lord Śiva’s dance, which he performs at the time of universal devastation, and at other times also.
tantras — Scriptures that teach mantra chanting and Deity worship, especially for persons not initiated into study of the original Vedas. There are separate tantras for Vaiṣṇavas and Śaivites. The most important Vaiṣṇava tantras are the Pa˝carātra Āgamas.
* Tantras — minor
scriptures describing various rituals, mostly for persons in the mode
of ignorance; Vedic literatures consisting mostly of dialogues between
Lord Śiva and Durgā. They contain instructions on Deity worship and
other aspects of spiritual practice; special hymns for conjuring magic
or producing mystical effects.
* tapaḥ — the acceptance of hardships for spiritual realization.
tapas — Lit., “heat.” Austerity, or trouble undertaken voluntarily for a higher purpose.
Tapas — (Tapoloka) The planet of renounced sages, above Svarga, Jana, and Mahar, where exalted persons such as the four Kumāras reside.
* tapas — austerity
or penance. There are many rules and regulations in the Vedas which
apply here, like rising early in the morning and taking a bath.
Sometimes it is very troublesome to rise early in the morning, but
whatever voluntary trouble one may suffer in this way is called penance.
Similarly, there are prescriptions for fasting on certain days of the
month. One may not be inclined to practice such fasting, but because of
his determination to make advancement in the science of Kṛṣṇa
consciousness, he should accept such bodily troubles when they are
tapasvī — One who performs tapas (austerities).
* tapasvīs — persons who undergo severe penances for elevation to higher planets.
tapasya — Austerity.
* tapasya — austerity; voluntary acceptance of some material trouble for progress in spiritual life.
* Tapoloka — a heavenly planet.
Tapoloka-vāsīs — The residents of Tapoloka.
* Tārā — the wife of Bṛhaspati. She was kidnapped by the moon-god.
* tarragon — this
famous gourmet culinary herb with long slender leaves and pungent,
bittersweet, tangy flavour is popular in French cuisine, especially as
one of the four fresh herbs found in fines herbes (along with parsley, chives, and chervil) and in butters, soups, sauces, creams, and salads. French tarragon (Artemesia dracunculus) is stronger in flavour than Russian tarragon (Artemesia dracunculoides). Tarragon is available at select greengrocers and produce markets.
* tāruṇyāmṛta — the nectar of youth.
* taṭastha-śakti — the living entities, the marginal potency of the Supreme Lord.
* tattva — truth.
* tattva-darśī — one who has seen the truth.
“Scientific knowledge” of one’s relationship with the Supreme, the
means of reviving that relationship, and the perfection achieved by that
Tattva-sandarbha — One of the seven sandarbhas written by Śrīla Jiva Goswami as his commentary on Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.
* tattvas — the Absolute Truth’s multifarious categories.
* Tattvavādīs — the followers of Madhvācārya.
* tattvavit — one who knows the Absolute Truth in His three different features.
* tava — a slightly concave cast-iron frying pan used for cooking chapatis and other flat Indian breads.
Teachings of Lord Caitanya — Śrīla Prabhupāda’s summary study of Lord Caitanya’s instructions.
tejas — Strength or power.
* tempo — three-wheeler vehicle used like a small bus.
Tenth Canto — The part of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam describing the most confidential pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa.
* thai rice — a long-grain, aromatic white rice from Thailand. Sometimes called Jasmine rice, it cooks to large, soft, fluffy grains.
* Ṭhākura Haridāsa — see: Haridāsa Ṭhākura
* ṭhākurāṇīs — the wives of devotees.
* thali — vegetarian meal which includes many different preparations, usually all you can eat; a low-rimmed metal plate.
* Theodore Parker (1810-1860) — an American Unitarian clergyman and social reformer who promoted the antislavery cause.
* thyme — this
attractive herb is grown in Mediterranean regions and Asia Minor. There
are more than one hundred species of thyme, but common or garden thyme,
Thymus vulgaris, is frequently used. Others include lemon, mint,
orange, golden-lemon, caraway-scented, woolly-stemmed, and the silver
thyme. Used fresh or dried, thyme imparts a distinctively warm,
pleasant, aromatic flavour and is popular as one of the great European
culinary herbs. It is used alongside bay and parsley in bouquet gami,
and goes into many soups and vegetable dishes (especially potatoes,
zucchini, eggplants, and sweet peppers). It is available fresh at
selected greengrocers and dried at grocery stores and supermarkets.
ṭīkā — Commentary.
* ṭīkā — a commentary.
tilaka — Auspicious
marks, of sacred clay and other substances, applied daily on the
forehead (and sometimes on various limbs as well) to dedicate one’s body
* tilaka — sacred clay markings placed on the
forehead and other parts of the body to designate one as a follower of
Viṣṇu, Rāma, Śiva, Vedic culture, etc.
* timiṅgila — a huge aquatic monster that can swallow whales.
* Tīrtha (teertha) — a
sacred place of pilgrimage associated with a pastime of an incarnation
of God, such as a holy river, a temple of the Lord, or the residence or
place of meditation of a holy sage or saintly person.
tīrtha — Literally, the ford of a river. A holy place, especially one at which pilgrims bathe for purification.
Tīrtha-śrava — Name of Viṣṇu meaning one who receives prayers offered at holy places.
* tithis — days of the Vedic calendar measured according to the phases of the moon.
* titikṣā — tolerance; endurance of unhappiness.
* tofu — soybean curd, or tofu,
is used in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Indonesian cooking. This
white, almost tasteless and odourless substance is produced from soya
beans that have been successively crushed, boiled in water, strained,
and pressed into a mould. Tofu is low in calories and is
cholesterol-free. High in protein, tofu is becoming increasingly popular in western kitchens. Standard Chinese tofu, which is lightly pressed, is sold fresh in most Chinese grocers. It has the consistency of firm custard. A firmer variety of tofu is also available at Chinese shops. Japanese style tofu
is the variety usually sold in health food shops in Australia. Being
firmer, it is good for slicing, cubing, and deep-frying. Dried beancurd
sheets and sticks are also used in Chinese cooking and are available at
Chinese grocery shops.
* tonga — two-wheeled horse carriage.
* toovar dal — also called arhar dal, toor dal,
or pigeon peas, these cream-coloured split lentils, which are paler in
colour, flatter, and larger than yellow split peas, are widely used for
cooking in Northern and Southwestern India. They have a delightful,
slightly sweet flavour and are easy to digest, especially in the famous
South Indian soup-like dishes rasam and sambar. Toovar dal is available at Indian grocers.
* tortilla — a thin, round, flat bread made from white cornmeal, or mesa. Tortillas
are the national breads of Mexico and are cooked on a griddle. They're
eaten fresh and are also the basis of Mexican dishes such as Enchiladas and Tacos.
Toṭa-gopīnātha temple — Atemple in Jagannātha Purī near the tomb of Haridāsa Ṭhākura.
* Ṭoṭā-gopīnātha temple — a
temple in Jagannātha Purī housing a Deity which was found by Lord
Caitanya and given to Gadādhara Prabhu to worship. He also gave
Gadādhara a place to live in the garden of Yameśvara, where the temple
was later built. Gadādhara Prabhu stayed there for the duration of his
life, absorbing himself in the service of Lord Caitanya and Gopīnātha.
* trāsa — shock, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.
* Trayī — the three Vedas. (Ṛg, Sāma and Yajur), which explain fruitive activities for material benefits.
* Trayodaśī — the thirteenth day after the new and full moons.
Tretā — (-yuga)
The second of the four repeating ages that form the basic cycles of
universal time. During its 1, 296,000 years, the mode of passion comes
into prominence. The system of Vedic fire sacrifices is developed
elaborately during the Tretā-yuga.
* Tretā-yuga — the second in the cycle of the four ages of the universe or mahā-yuga. It lasts 1,296,000 years. In this age Lord Rāmacandra appeared.
* tri-daṇḍa — a staff, made of three rods, carried by Vaiṣṇava sannyāsīs who are devotees of Lord Kṛṣṇa, signifying service with mind, body and words.
tribhaṅga — Lit., “bent in three places.” Refers to the three curves of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s posture as He plays upon His flute.
* Tribunga — Lord Kṛṣṇa’s famous three-curved stance.
tridaṇḍi — Lit., “three sticks.” The daṇḍa, or staff, composed of three long sticks tied together, carried by Vaiṣṇava sannyāsīs.
tridaṇḍi-bhikṣu swami — A Vaiṣṇava sannyāsī who lives by begging.
* tridaṇḍi-sannyāsī — a member of the renounced order of life who accepts the personal nature of the Absolute Truth.
* Trigarta — a province in ancient Bharata. The King of this country, Suśarma, fought on the side of Duryodhana and was killed by Arjuna.
Tripura — Three
flying cities built by Maya Dānava for the three sons of the demon
Tāraka. These aerial fortresses rendered the enemies of the demigods
invincible, until the secret was discovered that Lord Śiva could destroy
the cities with a single arrow at the rare moment when they conjoined
in a straight line.
* Tripura — a large district on the
far eastern side of Bengal, just south of the Śrī Hatta (Sylhet) area
of Assam. In olden times Tripura was part of Bengal. The kings of
Tripura had a long-standing relationship with Ṭhākura Bhaktivinoda and
later with Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura.
* Triveṇī — the confluence of the three sacred rivers Ganges, Yamunā and Sarasvatī at Prayāga.
* Trivikrama — a name for the Supreme Lord indicating His incarnation as the dwarf brāhmaṇa
Vāmanadeva. Meaning literally “He who took three big steps,” this name
recalls the Lord's pastime of extending His foot through the coverings
of the material universe and into the Causal Ocean.
* Triyuga — a name of Viṣṇu meaning one who appears in only three yugas.
* Triyugī — a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning “He who appears in three yugas,” namely Satya, Tretā, and Dvāpara. The Lord appears in a covered incarnation in Kali-yuga, as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
Tṛṇāvarta — A demon friend of Kaṁsa’s who assumed the form of a whirlwind and entered Vraja to kill Kṛṣṇa but instead was killed by Him.
* Tṛṇāvarta — a whirlwind-shaped demon who was sent by Kaṁsa to kill Kṛṣṇa, but whom Kṛṣṇa killed instead.
* Try-adhīśvara — the proprietor of the three worlds.
Tulādhāra — A
saintly businessman of ancient Kāśī who taught religious principles to
the sage Jājali, earning them both entry into Vaikuṇṭha.
tulasī — The sacred plant most beloved of Kṛṣṇa. Tulasī is a form of the gopī Vṛndā, the expansion of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī who owns the Vṛndāvana forest. Without the leaves of the tulasī plant, no offering of food is accepted by Lord Viṣṇu, and no worship to Him is complete.
* Tulasī — a pure devotee in the form of a basil plant held sacred by the Vaiṣṇavas and is very dear to Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Its leaves and ma˝jarīs (buds) are always offered to His lotus feet. See also: Ma˝jarī
tulasī-mālā — A strand of beads made of wood from the sacred tulasī plant, which is very dear to Kṛṣṇa. Vaiṣṇavas wear a small mālā on their necks as a sign of submission to Kṛṣṇa and carry a larger mālā with which to count the Lord’s names they have vowed to recite.
* tumeric — the rhizome, or underground stem, of the tropical herb Curcuma longa.
The short, waxy, orange-yellow rhizomes are boiled, cleaned, sun-dried,
and then ground to a fine aromatic, yellowish powder that is used as an
essential ingredient in Asian and, especially, Indian cooking. Turmeric
adds a brilliant yellow colour to cooked dishes and imparts a slightly
bitter, pungent flavour. Used in vegetable, legume, bean, and dal
dishes, it introduces colour and warmth to a dish, although overuse
produces excessive colour and bitterness. Turmeric powder is available
at Indian grocers and specialty stores.
* turnip, preserved — see: Choy boh
* tyāga — renunciation of activities performed with material consciousness.